Computers are an integral part of our everyday life. But the computers we use today are not built in one day. The history of computers is old, which started after about 1940.

The history of computer has been running for many decades and it has been a major change in every decade.
Computer history has been distributed among five generations. Each generation is defined by an important technological development that basically operates the computer - turned it into more compact, less expensive, but more powerful, efficient and robust machines.

To date, there are five Computer Generation Details are given in detail with time-period and characteristic of each generation.

generation of computer


    First generation of computers:

    The period of the first generation of computers is from 1946 to 1959.

    In these early computers vacuum tubes were used as circuits and magnetic drums for memory. As a result they were heavy, their size was as much as a whole room.

    Its materials used to produce a lot of heat, they used to get too much electricity and subsequent heat generated due to them became the reason for their break down.

    These first generation computers used to rely on 'machine language' (which is the most basic programming language that can be understood by the computer).

    These computers were limited to making a problem solvable at one time. Their input was based on punch card and paper tape. Their output came out with print out.

    Two unique machines UNIVAC and ENIAC machines were developed in this generation. UNIVAC is the first business computer to be bought by a business in 1951 - US Census Bureau.

    The main features of the first generation are:

    • Vacuum tube technological
    • beyond belief
    • Machine Support Language Only
    • Too expensive
    • It was very hot
    • Slow input and output devices
    • sheer size
    • AC requirement
    • Non portable
    • Too much power consumption

    There were some computers of this generation -

    • ENIAC
    • EDVAC
    • UNIVAC
    • IBM-701
    • IBM-650

    The second generation of computers:

    Period of second generation of computers was between 1959 and 1965.

    In this generation, transistors were used which were cheap, used less power and their size was compact. They were more reliable and fast than the first-generation machines of vacuum tubes.

    In this generation, magnetic tape and magnetic discs were used as magnetic core and secondary storage devices for primary memory.

    In this generation, assembly languages ​​like FORTRAN, COBOL and high level programming language were used. Computer used batch processing and multi-programming operating system.

    The main features of the second generation are:

    • Use of transistor
    • Reliable than first-generation computers
    • Small size compared to first-generation computers
    • Generate less heat compared to first-generation computers
    • Less power consumption compared to first-generation computers
    • Fast than first-generation computers
    • Very expensive
    • Essential
    • Machine and assembly language support

    There were some computers of this generation -

    • IBM 1620
    • IBM 7094
    • CDC 1604
    • CDC 3600
    • UNIVAC 1108

    The third generation of computers:

    Period of third generation of computers was from 1965 to 1971.

    In the third generation computer, Integrated Circuits (ICs) was used instead of the transistor. There were several Transistors, Resistors, and Capacitors in an IC with Associated Circuitry.

    The IC was invented by Jack Kelly. This development has created small, reliable and efficient computers in size. In this generation, remote processing, time-sharing, multi-programming operating system was used.

    During this generation high level programming language (FORTRAN-II TO IV, COBOL, PASCAL PL / 1, BASIC, ALGOL-68 etc.) was used.

    These were the first computers where users used keyboards and monitors. It enabled these machines to run multiple applications simultaneously using the central program.

    Third Generation of Computer

    The main features of the third generation are:

    • IC used
    • More reliable than the last two generations
    • Small size
    • Less heat generated
    • And fast
    • Low maintenance
    • Expensive
    • Essential
    • Low electricity consumption
    • Support High Level Language

    There were some computers of this generation -

    • IBM-360 series
    • Honeywell-6000 series
    • PDP (Personal Data Processor)
    • IBM-370/168
    • TDC-316

    Fourth generation of computers:

    Period of the fourth generation of computers was from 1971 to 1980.

    The fourth generation computer used the Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuit. About 5000 transistors and other circuit elements were mounted on the same chip in the VLSI circuit. Due to this, it was possible to create a microcomputer in the fourth generation.

    The fourth generation computers were more powerful, compact, reliable and cheap. As a result, it gave rise to the personal computer (PC) revolution.

    In this generation, Time Sharing, Real Time Network, Distributed Operating System was used. In this generation, all high level languages ​​like C, C ++, DBASE etc. were used.

    For the first time in 1981, IBM created a computer that was specially designed for home use. And later in 1984 Macintosh was created by Apple. Microprocessors now went much further in lower size and high processing power.

    The increased power of these small computers means that they can be linked, create networks. Eventually, the Internet was born and rapidly developed. During this period, there were significant advances in other major advances such as the Graphical user interface (GUI), mouse and lately lap-top capacities and hand-held devices.

    Forth Generation of Computer

    The main features of the fourth generation are:

    • Used VLSI technology
    • Very cheap
    • Portable and reliable
    • Use of pc
    • Very small size
    • No ac
    • Internet was launched
    • Network development
    • Computer became easily available

    There were some computers of this generation -

    • DEC 10
    • STAR 1000
    • PDP 11
    • CRAY-1 (Super Computer)
    • CRAY-X-MP (Super Computer)

     Computer Fifth Generation:

    Period of the fifth generation of the computer is from 1980 - until today.

    In the fifth generation, VLSI technology became UlLat Large Scale Integration Technology, which resulted in 10 million electronic components in microprocessor chips.

    This generation is based on parallel processing hardware and AI (Artificial Intelligence) software. AI is an emerging branch of computer science, who is searching for ways to make such a computer, which thinks like a human.

    All high level languages ​​like C and C ++, Java, .Net are used in this generation.

    Scientists are constantly working to increase the processing power of computers. They are trying to create a computer with real intelligence, with the help of advance programming and technology.

    Fifth Generation of Computer

    AI includes -

    • Robotics
    • Network net
    • Games
    • Develop an Expert system that can make decisions in real life situations

    The main features of the fifth generation are:

    • ULSI Technologies
    • Development of Artificial Intelligence
    • Development of Natural Language Processing
    • Advanced Parallel Processing
    • Progress in superconductor technology
    • More User Friendly Interfaces with Multimedia Features
    • Availability of very powerful and compact computers at cheap rates

    There are some computer types of this generation -

    • Desktop
    • Laptop
    • Notebook
    • UltraBook
    • ChromeBook

    Conclusion

    In my previous post, I gave a little information about the computer , related courses to computer, and the history of computer.if you have any questions relating to my post, then you can ask me through a comment or contact form. If you liked this post, do not forget to share it with your friends.

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