It is impossible to imagine life without computers today. We do our work, entertain ourselves, and through the computer we find out what we need to know. Sometimes we forget that the smartphone is just a palm-sized version of our desktop PC.
So what are the computers? Let’s know about Basic Computer Terms and Definitions.
The computer takes raw information (or data) from one end, stores it, then processes this information and then the results come out on the other end.
Where to go in computer language, taking information is stored in input, information memory, process information, where processing goes and where its output goes to output.
Once you understand how computers take input, stores them in storage, process them and give output, it will be easy for you.
Take down that image, you can easily understand it.
Input: Whenever you type from the keyboard or click with a mouse, then you are inputting the computer to which it is processing. You can also give input to the computer from the microphone.
Memory / storage: When you make any document, first it is stored in RAM, which is a temporary memory. When you save the document, they are stored on hard drives such as Permanent Memory.
Processing: Your computer’s processor (sometimes known as CPU-Central Processing Unit) is a microchip, which is located on the motherboard.
Output: You can see the output of the computer on your monitor or print it. There are monitor and printer output devices.
Hardware & Software In Computer:
The computer is composed of many parts and components that make user functionalities easy. The computer has two main parts . Basic Computer Terms and Definitions .
The physical parts of the computer come in the hardware, including peripheral devices such as motherboard, memory, storage, communication devices and other keyboard mouse.
The software is a set of instructions that describe what the hardware has to do and how to do it. Examples of software include OS (Windows, Mac), web browser, game, and word processor. There are two types of software – System software and application software.
Types of Computers
When most people hear computer words, they think of a personal computer such as desktops or laptops. However, computers come in many sizes and shapes, and they do many different tasks in our daily lives.
When you withdraw money from an ATM, scan grocery bags at the shop, or use the calculator, then you are using a computer in a way.Here is Basic Computer Terms and Definitions .
Basic Parts Of A Computer
There are some basic parts in the computer, which have different roles and they play an important role in computing.
1) Computer Case
The computer case is a box of metal and plastic, in which the main components of the computer are, including the motherboard, the central processing unit (CPU), the hard drive and the power supply unit.
There is usually an on / off button and optical drive in front of a computer case.
Computer cases come in different shapes and sizes.
The monitor works with a video card inside the computer case and displays text, images and video on the screen.
Liquid Crystal Display and LED (Light-Emitting Diode) types are typewritten. The old monitors were CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) which are no longer used. Some monitors also have built-in speakers.
Although there are many input devices, but the keyboards in the Windows operating system are the most commonly used input devices in any computer.
Keyboard is a main way to communicate with computers. There are many different types of keyboards, such as Standard, Multimedia, Portable and Foldable
The mouse is also an important tool to communicate with the computer. Usually it is known as a pointing device, you use it to point objects on the screen, click on them, and move them.
There are three main types of icons: optical, mechanical and wireless. Mechanical is now an old type.
Peripherals that you can use with your computer
With the computer you plug in several types of devices. Where do these peripherals go? Let’s take a look at some of the most common peripherals.
Printers are one of the output devices, which we use to print documents, photos, or anything.
Dot-Matrix Printers, Daisy-wheel printers, Line printers, Drum printers, Ink-jet printers, Laser printers, Multi-functional Printer etc. are types of printers.
Scanner input devices are You can save the images or scans them in a PC.
Flatbed, Sheet-fed, Handheld, and Drum Scanners are types of scanners.
3) Speakers / Headphones:
Speaker and headphone output devices are there. They can listen to the sound you are playing in the computer.
The microphone is an input device type. You can connect a microphone to record your sound in a computer or to talk with someone.
Many laptops come with internal microphones.
5) Web Cameras:
Web camera or webcam – An input device that can record video and capture image. They are used to record videos in real time or to video chat or video conferencing.
What happens inside the computer?
Have you ever seen inside a computer case? Its small parts may look complicated, but inside the computer case it is not really all mysterious. Here you will understand a bit more about Basic Computer Terms and Definitions.
The main board is the computer’s main circuit board. It is a thin plate that has connectors for CPU
, memory, hard drive and optical drive, expansion cards to control video and audio, and connections to your computer’s port (like USB ports). The motherboard connects every component of the computer directly or indirectly.
2) CPU / Processor:
Central Processing Unit (CPU), also called processor, is located on the motherboard in the case of a computer. This is called a computer brain. It produces output by processing on inputted input.
The CPU is usually a two-inch ceramic square with a silicon chip. It fits into the CPU socket of the chip motherboard, which is covered with hit sync, which absorbs the heat from the CPU.
As you can imagine, the speed and performance of the CPU is the most important factor that determines how the computer will work.
Speed of the processor is measured in Megahertz (MHz) or Gigahertz (GHz). Faster processor can execute the instruction faster.
3) RAM (Random Access Memory):
RAM is your system’s short-term memory. All the running processes in the computer are stored in RAM temporarily.
The more capacities of a computer, the more applications you can work together.
This short-term memory disappears when the computer turns off. If you are working on a Word, Spreadsheet, or other type of file, you have to save it to avoid losing it. When you save a file, this data is stored on the hard drive, which acts as Permanent Storage.
RAM speeds are in Megabytes (MB) or Gigabytes (GB). The more RAM you have, the more things the computer can do at the same time.
4) Hard Drive:
Permanent storage of hard drive data. All the data on your computer is stored on this
Hard disk or HDD IDE hard drives, SATA hard drives and SCSI hard drives are the main types.
Today, personal computers have hard disk 80GB, 120GB, 160GB, 250GB, 320GB, 500GB, 1TB and 2TB capacities.
5) Optical Drive:
Most desktop and notebook computers
come with optical drives, which are a CD / DVD or Blu-ray disc.
6) Power Supply Unit:
It sends the power through the cable to the motherboard and other components.
Types of Computers
There are too many words used to describe different types of computers. Most of these words mean the size of computers, expected use or capacity. Let’s start with the most obvious one-Basic Computer Terms and Definitions .
A) Computer Sizes And Power
Computers can be broadly classified
by their size, speed and computing power.
1) PC (Personal Computer):
A personal computer is a computer used by one user at a time. The microcomputer word is related to the microprocessor which is used with a personal computer for the purpose of processing data and instruction codes. These are the most common computer types because they are not very expensive.
Desktop computers are not designed to be mobile. They can be transported from one place to another, but only on a new desktop location and the power supply should be there.
Desktop computers are bigger and heavier than portables. They can be taken in a specially created case, but only with support engineers. Monitors, keyboards
, and icons are all separate items on a desktop.
This is a type of computer used for engineering applications (CAD / CAM), desktop publishing, software development, and other types of applications, which require computing power of medium capacity and relatively high quality graphics capabilities. Workstations usually come with a large, high-resolution graphics screen, large amounts of RAM, built-in network support and a graphical user interface. Most workstations also have a disk storage device like disk drive, but a particular type of workstation, which is called diskless workstation, comes without a disk drive. The most common operating systems for workstation are UNIX and Windows NT. Like personal computers, most workstations are single-user computers. However, workstations are usually added together to create a local area network, although they can also be used as a stand-alone system.
This is a mid-sized computer. In the last decade, the difference between large minicompoints and small mainframes has dimmed, however, there is a difference between small MinCompoints and workstations. But in general, a minicomputer is a multiprocessing system that is capable of simultaneously supporting more than 200 users.
Supercomputer is a comprehensive term for one of the fastest computers available at present. Supercomputers are very expensive and are employed for special applications which are required in high volume of mathematical calculations (number crunching). For example, a super computer is required to predict the weather. Other uses of super computer scientific simulation, (animated) graphics, fluid dynamic calculation, nuclear energy research, electronic design and analysis of geological data (such as in petrochemical prospecting). Perhaps the best known super computer manufacturer Cray Research is.
The mainframe was a word that originally referred to the central processing unit or the “main frame” of the Stone Age batch machine filling in the room. After the emergence of small “minicomputer” designs in the early 1970s, conventional large iron machines were described as “mainframe computers” and ultimately mainframes. Nowadays a mainframe is a very big and expensive computer capable of simultaneously supporting hundreds or even thousands of users. The main difference between a supercomputer and a mainframe is that a supercomputer uses its power to execute some programs as quickly as possible, while a mainframe uses its power to execute multiple programs concurrently. In some ways, mainframes are more powerful than super computers because they support more programs simultaneously. But super computers can accelerate one program faster than a mainframe. The difference between small mainframes and minicomputers is unclear, it really depends on how the manufacturer wants to market their machines.
B) Personal Computer Types
Actual personal computers can usually be classified by size and chassis / case.Basic Computer Terms and Definitions .
1) Tower model:
The term refers to a computer in which power supplies, motherboards and mass storage devices are placed on top of each other in a cabinet. This is in contrast to the desktop model, in which these components are kept in a more compact box. The main advantage of the tower model is that there is no shortage of space, making installation of additional storage devices easier.
2) Desktop model:
A computer is designed to be comfortable on a desk comfortably. Desktop model computers are widespread and smaller, while tower model computers are narrow and long. Due to their size, desktop model computers are usually limited to three internal storage devices. Very small designed desktop models are sometimes known as Slimline models.
3) Notebook Computer:
A very light personal computer. Notebook computers usually weigh less than 6 pounds and are small enough to fit easily in briefcases. In addition to the size, the main difference between notebook computer and personal computer is the display screen. Notebook computers use a variety of technologies, known as flat-panel techniques, to produce a lightweight and non-heavy display screen. The quality of the notebook display screen is quite different. In terms of computing power, modern notebook computers are almost equal to personal computers. They have the same CPU, memory capacity and disk drive. However, all this is a little expensive in a small package. The cost of notebook computers is almost double the size of regular computers. Notebook computers come with a battery pack that enables you to run them without having to plug them in. However, the battery needs to be recharged every few hours.
4) Laptop Computer:
A small, portable computer – so small that he could sit in your lap. Nowadays, laptop computers are often called notebook computers.
5) Handheld Computers:
In the early computers of the 20th century, some famous people needed whole rooms. These days, you can take a lot of processing power in your pants pocket. Handheld computers, such as smartphones and PDAs, are one of the reputable devices of our era.
Starting in the 1990s, Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) was a integrated computer that used flash memory rather than hard drives for storage. These computers generally did not have the keyboard, but the users were dependent on touchscreen technology for input. The PDAs were usually smaller than the paperback novels, which were very light with a proper battery life. For some time, they were tools to go for calendar, email and simple message functions. Remember Palm Pilot and Blackberry?
But as soon as the smartphone revolution started, the PDA lost its luster. Smartphones like iPhone and Samsung Galaxy have full-blow computer capabilities as well as calling features and PDA functionality. These include touch-screen interface, high-speed processor, many gigabytes of memory, full connectivity options (including Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, and more), double-lens cameras, high-quality audio systems and other features that are stunning to electronics Gave.
In the computing, the latte trand is a wearable computer. Essentially, normal computer applications (e-mail, database, multimedia, calendar / scheduler) are integrated into the clock, cell phones, wizards and even clothing. Many other wearables aim out enthusiasts and fitness freaks, allowing them to track their location, height, calorie burn, steps, speed and more.
Apple’s i-Watch, now in its fourth incarnation, is one of the best reviewed viables yet. This small timepiece has many features of a fully developed smartphone. This lets you do general texting and email. And it has a built-in cell phone, unlike some other smart clock, which are connected to the phone to call. Even there is also a built-in electrical heart sensor that you can use to electrocardiogram and can share it with your doctor immediately.
In my previous post, I gave a little information about the computer , related courses to computer, Generations Of Computer and the history of computer.if you have any questions relating to my post, then you can ask me through a comment or contact form. If you liked this post, do not forget to share it with your friends.